Karin Groen article about Rembrandt’s paint and binder, particle sizes

Karin Groen article: Investigation of the Use of the Binding Medium by Rembrandt :

Big conclusion: For thick impastos, especially in late Rembrandt, a pure white layer was commonly used, composed of a fine grind of lead white in unpolymerized linseed oil, combined almost universally (!) with a protein emulsifier, probably egg. Polymerized oils were used more with slower drying pigments, not with lead white.  Some glazes may have been emulsions employing cherry gum, with signs of encapsulated water droplets. Continue reading